Business Glossary

A glossary of business terms and definitions, served by Plannit.ai

B

Business Plan A document that outlines a company's goals and how it plans to achieve them. Benchmarking In business and finance, benchmarks serve as a reference for measuring the performance or quality of a particular asset, fund, or investment strategy against a defined standard. They can be indices such as the S&P 500 for stocks, specific interest rates for bonds, or industry standards for operations. Benchmarks are used to evaluate the relative success of a given investment or to set performance targets within an organization. Having a clear benchmark is critical for investors and managers to assess performance and make informed decisions. B2B (Business-to-Business) B2B encompasses the various types of commercial transactions and relationships between businesses, as opposed to those between businesses and consumers (B2C). B2B transactions often involve the sale of components or raw materials to be used in the production process of another business, as well as services provided from one business to another. They tend to be more complex with larger transaction values and longer sales cycles than B2C transactions. B2C (Business-to-Consumer) B2C transactions involve businesses selling products, services, or information directly to consumers. This model is most prevalent in retail, both in traditional brick-and-mortar stores and through online platforms. The B2C approach can encompass a wide range of marketing and sales activities, customer service, and more. With the rise of e-commerce, B2C has expanded significantly, enabling businesses to reach a larger audience without the geographical constraints of physical locations. Break-even Point The break-even point (BEP) is the point where total cost and total revenue are equal, meaning there is no net loss or profit. At this point, a business has sold enough of its product to cover its fixed and variable costs. Understanding the break-even point is essential for any business as it helps in setting targets, pricing products, and planning for profit margins. It is a foundational aspect of financial planning and analysis and can inform decisions regarding investment, expansion, and operational adjustments. To calculate the break-even point, the total fixed costs are divided by the unit price minus the variable cost per unit. Business Model A business model outlines how a company creates, delivers, and captures value. It encompasses the products or services it offers, its customer base, its sales and marketing activities, and its financial structure. This model can include how the company sources its materials, the costs associated with production, and how it prices its products or services to ensure profitability. A robust business model is vital for both new startups and established companies, as it serves as a foundation for the organization's strategy and operations. It also helps to articulate the value proposition to customers, partners, and investors. Business models can be direct, such as selling goods, or indirect, such as advertising models. Brand Equity Brand equity is the differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product or service. A brand with positive brand equity has significant customer recognition, perceived quality, and strong brand associations, which can result in customers willing to pay a premium for the products or services. Positive brand equity enables a company to create a higher level of trust with its customers, potentially leading to larger customer base and loyalty. Companies with strong brand equity often have a competitive advantage in the market, as their brand is seen as valuable. It is developed over time through marketing strategies, customer experiences, and the consistent delivery of the brand promise. Branding Branding is the strategic development and building of a unique identity for a product or company in the consumer's mind. This involves the creation of a consistent theme and messaging across all marketing communications. Effective branding generates recognition, establishes trust, differentiates from competitors, and creates customer loyalty. It encompasses not just the visual identity but also the company's values, mission, and customer experience. Bounce Rate Bounce rate is a metric that measures the proportion of visitors who navigate away from the site after viewing only one page. This is often used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a website in engaging users. A high bounce rate may suggest that the site content is not relevant or compelling enough to encourage viewers to look at other pages. Conversely, a low bounce rate might indicate that the site is effective in leading visitors to more content or that it meets the visitors' needs quickly and effectively. Bounce rate is a crucial metric for website performance analysis and optimization. Bankruptcy Bankruptcy is a legal proceeding carried out to allow individuals or businesses that are unable to repay their outstanding debts to resolve their financial obligations. The bankruptcy process entails the evaluation of the debtor's assets and liabilities and then providing a mechanism to use those assets to repay a portion of the debt. Bankruptcy can provide a fresh start for financially distressed entities, but it may involve the liquidation of assets or the creation of a repayment plan. Bar Chart Bar charts are used to visually compare different groups of data. They display rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values they represent. Bar charts can be oriented horizontally or vertically and are a common tool for presenting frequency distributions, comparisons among categories, or tracking changes over time. They provide a clear visual representation that can make data analysis and interpretation easier for viewers, being especially useful for illustrating data that spans several categories. Budget A budget is a detailed financial plan that quantifies the expectations of revenues and expenses for a specific period in the future. It serves as a blueprint for the organization, aligning resources with objectives and strategic plans. Budgets are essential for cost control, resource allocation, planning, and performance evaluation. Balance Sheet A financial statement that summarizes a company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time. Benefit Corporation (B-Corp) A certification for businesses that meet rigorous standards of social and environmental performance, accountability, and transparency.

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All-in Cost The total expenses associated with a transaction or operation. Accounting Keeping track of all the money that comes in and goes out of a business. Acquisition When one company buys most or all of another company. Advertising Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service, or idea. It encompasses a variety of media channels, including digital, print, radio, and television. Effective advertising campaigns are characterized by creative strategy, market research, and a deep understanding of consumer behavior to influence purchasing decisions and build brand loyalty. Allocation In finance and business operations, allocation pertains to how resources, expenses, or investments are distributed or assigned across different areas such as projects, departments, or asset classes. Effective allocation is key to managing resources efficiently, optimizing investment returns, and achieving business objectives. Proper allocation takes into account strategic priorities, risk management, and performance goals. Angel Investor Angel investors are affluent individuals who offer capital to early-stage companies or startups in return for an equity stake in the company. They often contribute not only money but also their expertise and networks. Angel investing bridges the funding gap between initial seed funding from friends and family and larger venture capital investments, and can be crucial in the early stages of a company's growth. AI Business Plan Generator An AI Business Plan Generator is a digital tool that uses artificial intelligence to help users create detailed business plans, automating the process of generating financial projections, marketing strategies, and operational plans based on user input. Annual Report The annual report is a thorough presentation of a company's performance over the past year, including detailed financial statements, discussions from management, and analysis of financial conditions and results. It serves as a fundamental communication tool for stakeholders to understand the company's financial health, strategic direction, and operational outcomes. It is often required by regulatory bodies for public companies. Accounts Payable (AP) Accounts payable encompasses the company's obligation to pay off short-term debts to its creditors or suppliers. It is a critical business function that ensures a firm's financial stability by managing outgoing funds, optimizing supplier terms, and preventing default on obligations. The management of accounts payable includes issuing payments for purchases made on credit, negotiating payment terms, and ensuring discounts are captured. Accounts Receivable (AR) Accounts receivable is the balance of money due to a firm for goods or services delivered or used but not yet paid for by customers. This accounting entry represents a legal obligation for the customer to remit cash for the debt incurred. Effective accounts receivable management is critical for a company's liquidity, and it involves credit management, billing, and timely collection processes. Analysis Analysis in a business setting involves a deep dive into data or processes to extract insights, inform decisions, or solve problems. This can involve financial analysis, market analysis, organizational analysis, and more. It can be a complex mix of qualitative assessments and quantitative metrics, aimed at breaking down information into manageable parts for strategic decisions. It is foundational to nearly every aspect of business strategy and operations. Agent In a business context, an agent is a representative who is authorized to act on behalf of an individual or organization in commercial transactions. The agent's decisions legally bind the principal, who is the entity on whose behalf the agent operates. Agency relationships are fundamental in many business activities, including negotiations, sales, and dealings with regulatory authorities. Aggressive An aggressive stance in business or investment might manifest as rapid expansion, significant reinvestment of profits for growth, entry into new markets, or the pursuit of high-risk, high-reward investment opportunities. This approach carries higher risk but potentially offers greater returns. Aggressiveness in the marketplace can also reflect competitive pricing strategies, marketing efforts, and innovation initiatives. Alignment Alignment in business is the strategic positioning of a company’s resources, capabilities, and activities to ensure coherence with the organization’s goals and strategy. It requires that various departments and functions move in concert towards the same objectives, and that employees' goals and actions are in sync with the company's direction. Good alignment is a predictor of organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Alpha Testing Alpha testing is the first phase of software testing where a product is tested internally to identify bugs, crashes, and other issues that need to be resolved before it can be tested further or released to the public. This phase helps ensure the product's quality and functionality and is typically followed by beta testing, which expands the testing process to include external users for further validation and feedback. Amortization Amortization is the financial practice of spreading out a lump sum cost (or debt) across multiple time periods. This is done for debt repayment or to account for the declining value of an intangible asset. With loans, it allows for consistent repayment scheduling that includes interest and principal over the loan’s life. For intangible assets, amortization helps spread the cost of the asset over its useful life for accounting purposes. Asset A resource owned by an individual or organization that is expected to provide future economic benefits.

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Key Performance Indicators (KPI's) KPIs are quantifiable measures used to evaluate the success of an organization, employee, or a particular activity in meeting objectives for performance. They are vital for businesses to assess progress toward operational and strategic goals, and typically vary by industry, company, and department. Common KPIs include financial metrics such as net profit margin or revenue growth, as well as non-financial metrics such as customer satisfaction and employee turnover rates. Effective KPIs are well-defined, quantifiable, and crucial to achieving business objectives. They provide a focus for strategic and operational improvement, create an analytical basis for decision-making, and help focus attention on what matters most.

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Mission Statement A mission statement is a concise explanation of a company's reason for being, its core purpose, and its direction. It communicates the organization’s values and its commitment to its stakeholders, including customers, employees, suppliers, and the community. A well-crafted mission statement serves as a guide for decision-making within the organization and as a message to the public about what the company stands for. It is an integral part of a company's corporate identity and strategy, providing a foundation for goals and operational strategies. Marketing The activity of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising.

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E-commerce E-commerce, also known as electronic commerce or internet commerce, refers to the buying and selling of goods or services using the internet, and the transfer of money and data to execute these transactions. E-commerce is often used to refer to the sale of physical products online, but it can also describe any kind of commercial transaction that is facilitated through the internet. E-commerce has evolved to make products easier to discover and purchase through online retailers and marketplaces. Independent freelancers, small businesses, and large corporations have all benefited from e-commerce. Exit Strategy An exit strategy is a way of transitioning the ownership of a company to another company or investors. In the case of startups, an exit strategy is often a sale of the company or an Initial Public Offering (IPO) to repay investors. Planning an exit strategy is important for bringing financial returns to shareholders or for a business owner to reduce or liquidate their stake in a business and, if the business is successful, make a substantial profit. Employee Engagement Employee engagement is a workplace approach resulting in the right conditions for all members of an organisation to give of their best each day... Equity Financing Equity financing is the process of raising capital through the sale of shares. Companies raise money by selling shares of ownership in the company in public or private markets. This is common in all stages of business, especially for start-up financing and for capital expansions. Equity Capital Equity capital refers to funds raised by a company in exchange for a share of ownership in the company. Expenses Expenses are the economic costs that a business incurs through its operations to earn revenue. They are the result of the company’s efforts to generate sales and manage the business. Expenses may be in the form of actual cash payments (such as wages and salaries, rent, and utilities), a computed expired portion of an asset (depreciation), or an amount taken out of earnings (such as bad debts). Expenses are recorded in the company’s financial statements, specifically the income statement. Managing expenses is essential for a company’s profitability as the lower the expenses relative to revenue, the higher the company’s potential for profitability. Executive Summary An executive summary is a concise overview of a larger document, report, or proposal. Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) EBIT is an indicator of a company's profitability and is sometimes referred to as "operating earnings" or "operating profit." Efficiency In an economic context, efficiency is the use of resources so as to maximize the production of goods and services. An economic system is efficient if it takes all opportunities to make some people better off without making other people worse off. Employee Benefits Employee benefits are various types of non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. Examples of these benefits include: health insurance, dental insurance, vision care, life insurance, legal insurance, paid vacation leave, personal leave, sick leave, childcare, fitness, retirement benefits, and planning services. Entrepreneur A person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so. Entrepreneurship The activity of setting up businesses or enterprises, especially when it involves financial risk. Employee A person hired by a company to perform specific duties in exchange for compensation.

C

Customer Loyalty Customer loyalty is the behavior of repeat customers, reflected in their willingness to buy from a particular retailer or brand consistently over an alternative. This loyalty can stem from many factors, including satisfaction with the product, the perceived value of the brand, or a positive customer service experience. Companies may foster customer loyalty through rewards programs, personalized experiences, and consistently delivering high-quality products and services. Conversion Rate Conversion rate is an important metric in digital marketing and e-commerce that measures the percentage of users who complete a desired action out of the total number of visitors. Actions can vary from making a purchase, signing up for a service, clicking on a link, filling out a form, etc. It helps businesses understand the effectiveness of their marketing strategies, website design, and user experience, and is crucial for measuring the return on investment for various marketing activities. C Corporation A C Corporation is a legal structure for a corporation where the business entity is taxed separately from its owners. This is the most common form of incorporation and offers limited liability protection to its shareholders, but it also entails double taxation—once at the corporate level and again at the personal level when dividends are distributed to shareholders. Cash Flow Cash flow is the net amount of cash and cash-equivalents being transferred into and out of a business. It is an indicator of a company's financial health, showing its ability to pay obligations, create value, and provide returns to shareholders. Positive cash flow indicates growing liquid assets, enabling the company to settle debts, reinvest, pay expenses, and provide a buffer against future financial challenges. Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) COGS is the direct costs that are attributable to the production of the products a company sells. This includes the cost of the materials and labor directly used to create the product, and it excludes indirect expenses such as distribution costs and sales force wages. It's a critical accounting metric that helps determine the gross profit of a company when subtracted from revenue and is a key component in calculating a company's gross margin. Capital Capital refers to the financial assets or resources that individuals, companies, or governments use to fund their operations and invest in long-term growth. It can include funds held in deposit accounts, tangible machinery, facilities, and human capital. For businesses, managing capital is essential for sustainable growth and profitability. Capital Gains Capital gains are the profits realized when an investment is sold for more than its original purchase price. They are often subject to capital gains tax, which varies based on whether they are considered short-term or long-term gains. In many jurisdictions, long-term capital gains are taxed at a lower rate to encourage long-term investment. Chartered Accountant (CA) Chartered Accountant (CA) is a professional designation given to accounting professionals in many countries around the world. CAs often engage in a wide range of accounting activities, including auditing, tax advising, and management consulting. The designation denotes an individual who has received education and passed examinations on topics such as business strategies, taxation, financial reporting, and auditing from a recognized professional body. Competition Competition is the rivalry among companies selling similar products and services, aiming for revenue, profit, and market share growth. It fosters innovation, quality improvement, and better choices for consumers. Competitive analysis is key for business strategy development to leverage market opportunities and mitigate threats. Consumer Goods Consumer goods are products purchased by consumers for private use and not for manufacturing or resale. They encompass a wide array of merchandise from necessities like food and clothing to luxury items like electronics and jewelry. These goods are the end products of production and manufacturing and are what consumers see and buy in retail outlets. They can be categorized into durable goods, non-durable goods, and services. Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus is an economic concept that represents the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay for a good or service and the actual amount they pay. Contingent Liability Contingent liabilities are not definite obligations. They depend on the occurrence of a specific event in the future, such as lawsuits, warranty claims, or tax disputes. These liabilities are recorded in the company’s accounts only if the liability is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. They are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements to inform investors about the potential risks that may affect the financial health of the company. Contract A contract is a formal or legally binding agreement between two or more parties that, if it contains the elements of a valid legal agreement, is enforceable by law or by binding arbitration. It outlines specific obligations each party has agreed to fulfill and can involve any subject matter as long as it is not illegal or against public policy. Contracts can be written, oral, or implied, and they must include an offer, acceptance, consideration, and mutual intent to be bound. Corporate Culture Corporate culture encompasses the collective values, beliefs, ethics, and practices that define the day-to-day operations of a company. It influences all aspects of a business's operations and reflects the leadership's values, the ways in which companies interact with their employees, customers, and the wider community. A strong corporate culture can contribute to improved employee loyalty, job satisfaction, and performance, whereas a weak culture might lead to a lack of direction, dissatisfaction, and high turnover. Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost-benefit analysis is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings. It is used to evaluate the total anticipated cost of a project compared to the total expected benefits in order to determine whether the proposed initiative is worthwhile for a company or project team. Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations use contributions from internet users to obtain needed services or ideas. This can include asking for input on social media, using platforms to gather information, outsourcing tasks through an open call, or crowdfunding. Crowdsourcing leverages the mass collaboration enabled by the internet to achieve goals, solve problems, or gather information and ideas, often at a lower cost and in less time than traditional methods. Cash Flow Statement A financial report that details the amount of cash and cash equivalents entering and leaving a company. Customer An individual or entity that purchases goods or services from a business. Compound Interest Interest calculated on the initial principal, which also includes all of the accumulated interest from previous periods on a deposit or loan.

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Stakeholder Stakeholders can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives, and policies. Key stakeholders in a business include creditors, directors, employees, government agencies, owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community. Stakeholder engagement is essential for corporate governance and strategic management, ensuring that the interests of all parties are considered and balanced in the decision-making process. SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis is used to gauge the competitive position of a business or the potential of a project. It includes assessing the internal (Strengths and Weaknesses) and external (Opportunities and Threats) factors that influence success. This analysis is fundamental to strategic planning, helping businesses capitalize on their strengths, address weaknesses, seize opportunities, and mitigate potential threats. Sole Proprietorship A business structure owned and operated by one individual, where there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.

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Vision Statement A vision statement sets out a company's long-term goals and aspirations, providing a clear set of ideals to strive toward. Effective vision statements are inspirational and reflective of a company's values and culture. They should be ambitious and guide the setting of objectives while giving employees a sense of purpose. Valuation Valuation is the process of determining the current worth of an asset or a company. This can be done for the purpose of investment analysis, capital budgeting, merger and acquisition transactions, financial reporting, taxable events to determine the proper tax liability, and in legal disputes. Methods of valuation include using financial metrics, comparing to similar companies, and discounting future cash flows to their present value. Venture Capital Financial support provided to early-stage, high-potential, high-risk startup companies.

F

Fixed Assets Fixed assets, also known as tangible assets or property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), are long-term assets that a company has purchased and is using for its operations. Fixed assets are not expected to be consumed or converted into cash within a year. They are crucial to a company's operations and are not easily changed or liquidated. Fixed Costs Fixed costs are those business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business. They tend to be time-related, such as salaries or rents being paid per month, and are often referred to as overhead costs. This is in contrast to variable costs, which are volume-related (and are paid per quantity produced). Fixed costs are an important part of a firm’s break-even analysis. If a company's variable costs are low as compared to its fixed costs, it needs to generate a higher amount of sales to break even. Understanding the scale of fixed costs is important for businesses as they plan their operational and production strategies.

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Gross Margin Gross margin, a company's total sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS), divided by the total sales revenue, expressed as a percentage. It represents the proportion of each dollar of revenue that the company retains as gross profit. For example, if a company's gross margin is 40%, it means the company has a gross profit of $0.40 for each dollar of revenue. Gross Profit Gross profit is a company's revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS). It represents the amount of money a company makes from its products or services before deducting operating expenses, taxes, interest, etc. Gross profit margin, a related metric, indicates the percentage of revenue that exceeds the COGS and is a key indicator of a business's production efficiency. The gross profit figure is critical because it is used to calculate the gross profit margin. This margin, in turn, provides insight into the financial health of a company, indicating how efficiently it is using labor and supplies in the production process and how effectively the company's pricing strategy is being implemented.

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Hard Assets Hard assets are physical, tangible assets that hold value, such as real estate, precious metals, commodities, collectibles, or natural resources. They are often considered as a hedge against inflation because their value is not typically based on financial performance or market fluctuations.

I

Impression Impressions are used to measure how often an advertisement or digital content is displayed, regardless of whether it was clicked or not. They are critical in digital marketing for analyzing the reach of content and are a common metric in advertising and media planning. Impressions can help advertisers understand the exposure of their message or brand and are often sold on a cost-per-thousand (CPM) basis. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) IPRs are territorial rights that give the holder exclusive rights to use their creation for a certain period. These rights encourage innovation and creativity by allowing creators to profit from their inventions. They include patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets. Patents protect inventions, copyrights protect literary and artistic works, trademarks protect brand identities, and trade secrets protect confidential business information. Income Statement A financial document that reports a company’s revenues, expenses, and profits over a specific period. Investment The allocation of resources, usually money, with the expectation of generating an income or profit.

P

Price Point The price point is the designated price level for a product or service determined by a company to be the most advantageous in the market. It considers factors such as production cost, competition, operational expenses, product positioning, and market demand. Setting an effective price point can be key to maximizing profit while ensuring customer satisfaction and market share. Companies may have multiple price points within a market as a strategy to target different customer segments or to position a range of products.

O

Outsourcing Outsourcing involves contracting out business processes to third-party providers. This can include tasks like customer support, payroll management, or manufacturing. The primary goals of outsourcing are often to reduce costs, access specialized expertise, and free up internal resources for core business activities. While outsourcing can provide significant advantages, it can also present challenges such as reduced control over business processes and potential negative impact on employee morale. Overhead Overhead costs are the non-labor expenses required to operate a business. These are not directly tied to the production of goods or services but are necessary for the business to function. Overhead costs must be paid regularly, and they can include rent, utilities, insurance, office supplies, and salaries of non-production employees. Effective management of overhead costs can be crucial for a business’s profitability and longevity.

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Joint Venture A joint venture is a strategic alliance where two or more parties, usually businesses, form a partnership to share markets, intellectual property, assets, knowledge, and, profits. Joint ventures are common in international business to enter new markets or pool resources for large projects, and they often involve shared risks and rewards. This type of partnership allows for companies to collaborate without having to merge their operations completely. It enables the parties to pursue mutual interests while maintaining their separate identities and to share the risks and rewards of the venture. Properly executed, joint ventures can lead to significant competitive advantages, innovation, and access to new markets.

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Return on Investment (ROI) Return on Investment is a financial metric used to analyze the probability of gaining a return from an investment. It is a ratio that compares the gain or loss from an investment relative to its cost. ROI is used to make decisions between various investment opportunities, measuring the amount of return on an investment relative to the investment’s cost. Revenue The total income generated by a company from its normal business operations.

D

Debt-Equity Ratio The debt-to-equity ratio is calculated by dividing a company’s total liabilities by its shareholder equity. It is a measure of the degree to which a company is financing its operations through debt versus wholly-owned funds. This ratio is a valuable metric because it provides insights into the financial health of a company, indicating how much of the company is owned by investors and how much is owed to creditors. A high debt-to-equity ratio generally means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt, which can result in volatile earnings due to the additional interest expense. Default Risk Default risk, also known as credit risk, is the possibility that a borrower will be unable to make the required payments on their debt obligation. Lenders and investors are exposed to default risk in virtually all forms of credit extensions. To compensate for taking on default risk, lenders typically charge rates of return that correspond to the debtor’s level of default risk. The higher the risk, the higher the required return, and vice versa. Credit ratings are often used to estimate default risk, with lower-rated bonds offering higher yields to compensate for the higher risk. Demand Demand is a fundamental concept in economics that describes a consumer's desire to purchase goods and services and their willingness to pay a certain price for them. It is quantified by the quantity of a good that consumers are willing to buy at different prices. Demand can be influenced by a number of factors, including the price of the good, consumer income, and preferences. Typically, there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the amount of it demanded, all else being equal, which is known as the law of demand. Demand Curve The demand curve is a fundamental concept in economics that illustrates the quantity of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to purchase at various prices, assuming all other factors remain constant (ceteris paribus). Typically, the curve slopes downward from left to right, reflecting the law of demand — as the price of a good decreases, the quantity demanded increases, and vice versa. It can be used to analyze consumer behavior and is crucial for businesses in setting pricing strategies. Depreciation Depreciation is an accounting concept that represents the method by which a company's assets decrease in value over time, particularly as a result of wear and tear, age, or obsolescence. This decrease in value is recorded as a non-cash expense on the income statement, which reduces net income. On the balance sheet, the asset's original cost is reduced by the accumulated depreciation. This concept allows businesses to spread the cost of an asset over the period of its useful life, providing a more accurate picture of profitability. Digital Marketing Digital marketing encompasses a range of marketing activities that utilize digital devices and the internet. This can include email, social media, search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing, e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, optical disks and games, and any other form of digital media. It also extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as television, mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones. Diversification Diversification is the practice of spreading investments around in order to mitigate risk.

N

Net Worth Total value of an individual's or entity's assets minus their liabilities. Non-profit Organization An organization dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of interest without seeking financial profit for its owners or organizers.

T

Target Audience A specific group of people identified as the intended recipients of a product, service, or message, characterized by shared demographics, interests, or needs.

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Liability An obligation that arises during business operations and results in economic outflows or sacrifices Limited Liability Company A business structure in the United States that provides its owners with limited liability protection while allowing profits and losses to pass through to their personal tax returns.